[308], By the 14th century, castles were combining defences with luxurious, sophisticated living arrangements and landscaped gardens and parks. [139] Anglo-Saxon queens began to hold lands in their own right in the 10th century and their households contributed to the running of the kingdom. [314] A wide range of materials was used, including gold, glass and ivory, the art usually drawing overt attention to the materials utilised in the designs. [284] The Viking attacks on England in the 9th century led to developments in tactics, including the use of shield walls in battle, and the Scandinavian seizure of power in the 11th century introduced housecarls, a form of elite household soldier who protected the king. [65] Henry VI became king at the age of only nine months and both the English political system and the military situation in France began to unravel. Turner (2009), p. 106; Warren (1991), p. 123; Rose, p. 69. [142], After the Norman invasion, the position of women in society changed. 74–75; Mortimer (2008), pp. When Edward died in 1066, Harold Godwinson claimed the throne, defeating his rival Norwegian claimant, Harald Hardrada, at the battle of Stamford Bridge. [21] England became dominated by the Godwin family, who had taken advantage of the Danish killings to acquire huge wealth. [273], Technological advances proceeded in a range of areas. [12] In 789, however, the first Scandinavian raids on England began; these Viking attacks grew in number and scale until in 865 the Danish micel here or Great Army, invaded England, captured York and defeated the kingdom of East Anglia. That said, high density does not necessitate large cities. [116] This government was better organised and on a larger scale than ever before, and by the 14th century the king's formerly peripatetic chancery had to take up permanent residence in Westminster. [109] This was contentious and a frequent issue of complaint, as there was a growing belief that land should be held by hereditary right, not through the favour of the king. Carpenter, pp. [175] Despite this, the Jewish community became increasingly impoverished and was finally expelled from England in 1290 by Edward I, being replaced by foreign merchants. [14], However, in the same year Alfred won a decisive victory against the Danes at the Battle of Edington, and he exploited the fear of the Viking threat to raise large numbers of men and using a network of defended towns called burhs to defend his territory and mobilise royal resources. One among the most surprising medieval England facts is that the medieval England didn’t have as many bridges as have been shown in movies. The Goths and Vandals attacked and eventually sacked the city of Rome [34][nb 1] Civil war broke out across England and Normandy, resulting in a long period of warfare later termed the Anarchy. Huscroft, pp. 97–99. [130] The gentry and wealthier townsmen exercised increasing influence through the House of Commons, opposing raising taxes to pay for the French wars. [346] This Romanesque style developed throughout the period, featuring characteristic circular arches. Prestwich (1992a), p. 93; Carpenter, p. 524. 16–17, 52. [366] Marxist and Neo-Marxist analyses continued to be popular in the post-war years, producing seminal works on economic issues and social protests. The continents of Europe and Asia form the Eurasian landmass. [258] These new trading systems brought about the end of many of the international fairs and the rise of the chartered company. King Cnut the Great was the Viking king of Denmark, Norway, England and some areas in Sweden. People in the medieval world were remarkably well travelled and huge leaps were made in the extent and precision of cartography in the late Middle Ages. [247], Although the Norman invasion caused some damage as soldiers looted the countryside and land was confiscated for castle building, the English economy was not greatly affected. [300] Battles might be fought when one fleet found another at anchor, such as the English victory at Sluys in 1340, or in more open waters, as off the coast of Winchelsea in 1350; raiding campaigns, such as the French attacks on the south of England between 1338 and 1339, could cause devastation from which some towns never fully recovered. [179], The movement towards Christianity began again in the late 6th and 7th centuries, helped by the conversion of the Franks in Northern France, who carried considerable influence in England. Carpenter, pp. The local economy had once been dominated by imperial Roman spending on a large military establishment, which in turn helped to support a complex network of towns, roads, and villas. [361] In the 16th century, the first academic histories began to be written, typically drawing primarily on the chroniclers and interpreting them in the light of current political concerns. William Shakespeare's plays on the lives of the medieval kings have proved to have had long lasting appeal, heavily influencing both popular interpretations and histories of figures such as King John and Henry V.[369] Other playwrights have since taken key medieval events, such as the death of Thomas Becket, and used them to draw out contemporary themes and issues. [307] Castles and sieges continued to grow in military sophistication during the 12th century, and in the 13th century new defensive town walls were constructed across England. [223] Indeed, by the 12th century reports of posthumous miracles by local saints were becoming increasingly common in England, adding to the attractiveness of pilgrimages to prominent relics. [280] Transport links were also improved; many road bridges were either erected or rebuilt in stone during the long economic boom of the 12th and 13th centuries. Choose from 195 different sets of medieval europe geography urban flashcards on Quizlet. 56–58. [16] Under his son, Edward the Elder, and his grandson, Æthelstan, Wessex expanded further north into Mercia and the Danelaw, and by the 950s and the reigns of Eadred and Edgar, York was finally permanently retaken from the Vikings. 213–214, 220–223; Myers, pp. [279] William Caxton and Wynkyn de Worde began using the printing press during the late 15th century. The English perceived themselves as civilised, economically prosperous and properly Christian, while the Celtic fringe was considered lazy, barbarous and backward. [228] Raising funds to travel typically involved crusaders selling or mortgaging their lands and possessions, which affected their families and, at times, considerably affected the economy as a whole. [310] The economics of maintaining castles meant that many were left to decline or abandoned; in contrast, a small number of castles were developed by the very wealthy into palaces that hosted lavish feasts and celebrations amid elaborate architecture. [245] These peasants would pay rent to the landowner either through agricultural labour on the lord's demesne fields or through rent in the form of cash and produce. [19] Æthelred took power in 978 following the murder of his brother Edward, but England was then invaded by Sweyn Forkbeard, the son of a Danish king. Turner (1971), pp. [99] The practice of slavery declined in the years after the conquest, as the Normans considered the practice backward and contrary to the teachings of the church. [163], During the 12th and 13th centuries, the English began to consider themselves superior to the Welsh, Scots and Bretons. [61], Edward's grandson, the young Richard II, faced political and economic problems, many resulting from the Black Death, including the Peasants' Revolt that broke out across the south of England in 1381. [88] The legal system depended on a system of oaths in which the value of different individuals swearing on behalf of the plaintiff or defendant varied according to their social status – the word of a companion of the king, for example, was worth twelve times that of a churl. Hollister, p. 168; Alexander, pp. Stringer, pp. [352] In the early 14th century the Perpendicular Gothic style was created in England, with an emphasis on verticality, immense windows and soaring arcades. [132] Law and order deteriorated, and the crown was unable to intervene in the factional fighting between different nobles and their followers. 107–112; Turner (1971), pp. 120–121. The principle of indivisibility of the kingdom soon was adopted by other countries - christian England and Scotland; with conversion to christianity also by Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Hungary, Bohemia. 150–151; Aston and Richmond, pp. People crossed rivers by placing stones to keep themselves from getting wet by the water. Geography & Maps. England comprises most of the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, in addition to a number of small islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. [289], In the late 13th century Edward I expanded the familia regis to become a small standing army, forming the core of much larger armies up to 28,700 strong, largely comprising foot soldiers, for campaigns in Scotland and France. [133] The resulting Wars of the Roses saw a savage escalation of violence between the noble leaderships of both sides: captured enemies were executed and family lands attainted. More social unrest broke out, followed by the Wars of the Roses, fought between rival factions of the English nobility. [134], Medieval England was a patriarchal society and the lives of women were heavily influenced by contemporary beliefs about gender and authority. [201] The Dominican and Franciscan friars arrived in England during the 1220s, establishing 150 friaries by the end of the 13th century; these mendicant orders rapidly became popular, particularly in towns, and heavily influenced local preaching. 42 figures, f;3o.] As ties to Normandy waned, the French Cluniac order became fashionable and their houses were introduced in England. Carpenter, p. 446; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 208. [197] England's bishops remained powerful temporal figures, and in the early 12th-century raised armies against Scottish invaders and built up extensive holdings of castles across the country. Getz, p.liii; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 9. [98] This system had been used in Normandy and concentrated more power in the king and the upper elite than the former Anglo-Saxon system of government. Cobban, p. 101; Danziger and Gillingham, p. 9. [238] This cold end to the Middle Ages significantly affected English agriculture and living conditions. [374] Medieval living history events were first held during the 19th and early 20th centuries, and the period has inspired a considerable community of historical re-enactors, part of England's growing heritage industry. [309] Early gunpowder weapons were used to defend castles by the end of the 14th century and gunports became an essential feature for a fashionable castle. [257] A new class of gentry emerged who rented farms from the major nobility. [149] There they worked with their husbands, or in a limited number of occupations, including spinning, making clothes, victualling and as servants. [222] Accumulating relics became an important task for ambitious institutions, as these were believed to hold curative powers and lent status to the site. This paper examines the marginal place of ‘medieval geography’ in contemporary geographical scholarship. It was an uncommon feature to have been seen anywhere in medieval England. 1038), "Twelfth Century Great Towers – The Case for the Defence", Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=England_in_the_Middle_Ages&oldid=998901597, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 15:31. [348] The palaces constructed for the nobility centred on great timber halls, while manor houses began to appear in rural areas. The Geography of Medieval Europe. [332] In the reign of Richard II there was an upsurge in the use of Middle English in poetry, sometimes termed "Ricardian poetry", although the works still emulated French fashions. England had a diverse geography in the medieval period, from the Fenlands of East Anglia or the heavily wooded Weald, through to the upland moors of Yorkshire. [267], The period produced some influential English scholars. [244] Agricultural land became typically organised around manors, and was divided between some fields that the landowner would manage directly, called demesne land, and the majority of the fields that would be cultivated by local peasants. [67] Edward IV, leading a faction known as the Yorkists, removed Henry from power in 1461 but by 1469 fighting recommenced as Edward, Henry, and Edward's brother George, backed by leading nobles and powerful French supporters, vied for power. [39] Henry strengthened England's borders with Wales and Scotland, and used the country's wealth to fund a long-running war with his rivals in France, but arrangements for his succession once again proved problematic. [207] William promoted celibacy amongst the clergy and gave ecclesiastical courts more power, but also reduced the Church's direct links to Rome and made it more accountable to the king. [143] The rights of widows were formally laid down in law by the end of the 12th century, clarifying the right of free women to own property, but this did not necessarily prevent women from being forcibly remarried against their wishes. [315] They produced a wide range of metalwork, frequently using gold and garnets, with brooches, buckles, sword hilts and drinking horns particularly favoured designs. [277] The introduction of hopped beer transformed the brewing industry in the 14th century, and new techniques were invented to better preserve fish. [164] Following the invasion of Ireland in the late 12th century, similar feelings were expressed about the Irish, with the distinctions clarified and reinforced in 14th-century English legislation. [191] Reforms followed under the kings of Wessex who promoted the Benedictine rule then popular on the Continent. [1] At the end of the 4th century, however, Roman forces had been largely withdrawn, and this economy collapsed. [78] Huge estates were initially built up by the king, bishops, monasteries and thegns, but in the 9th and 10th centuries these were slowly broken up as a consequence of inheritance arrangements, marriage settlements and church purchases. On the contrary, living by the sea or rivers had great advantages for trade with … [339] Ballads were also popular from the late 14th century onwards, including the Ballad of Chevy Chase and others describing the activities of Robin Hood. Turner (1971), pp. They had close family and economic links to the Duchy of Normandy, spoke Norman French and had their own distinctive culture. [50] Edward also fought campaigns in Scotland, but was unable to achieve strategic victory, and the costs created tensions that nearly led to civil war. [214] The English bishops were charged to control and counter this trend, disrupting Lollard preachers and to enforcing the teaching of suitable sermons in local churches. There are mountains and rivers, islands and peninsulas. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf and sophisticated metalwork. Jordan, p. 12; Bailey, p. 46; Aberth, pp. [24] William used a network of castles to control the major centres of power, granting extensive lands to his main Norman followers and co-opting or eliminating the former Anglo-Saxon elite. 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