While details concerning the extent of future impacts of climate change are the subject of debate, the Arctic is experiencing those changes today. They eat the photosynthesizing phytoplankton and in turn are food for fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Unlike the Arctic, there are no indigenous communities based in Antarctica. Glacial ice forms on land, and is made of freshwater snow packed down tightly over many years. The first difference between the Arctic and Antarctica is they’re located on opposite sides of the world. The Arctic Tern could really be called the Arctic-Antarctic Tern. Land is being lost, along with animals that provide food for the people living in the Arctic. In years past, thicker ice was about 40 percent of total ice cover. For comparison, this is 10.7 °C (20 °F) colder than subliming dry iceat one atmosphere of partial pressure, but since CO2 only makes up 0.039% of air, temperatures of less than −140 °C (−220 °F) would be needed to produce dry ice snow in … Some animals make fantastically long migrations, moving from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back again every year, living an endless polar summer. It has indigenous people such as Inuits, Indians and Siberians. From this thin layer, the ice becomes thicker and stronger, forming pack ice. Antarctica is covered by ice throughout the year, less than 5% of Antarctica is free of ice. The Arctic is characterized by the blowing of mild winds. Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest of Earth's seven continents, and 98 percent of the continent is covered by ice with no tundra, trees or bushes. China in the Arctic and Antarctic: A Threat? The Arctic is largely sea, with the north pole over 400 miles away from the nearest land mass. That is Arctic is at the North pole and Antarctic at the South pole. Antarctica, on the other hand, is a continent, covered by a very thick ice cap and surrounded by a rim of sea ice and the Southern Ocean. But researchers have also found that the ice crystals don’t go away during the warmer summer months—one of the implications of living below the ice. this video shows the difference between the arctic and the antarctic. But, further genetic testing proved that they were in fact, not the same species and that the miles between do make a difference. The Arctic and the Antarctic show differences in their environment, weather, animal and plant life, human activity, and the like. Its formation begins in very cold water surrounded by thicker sea ice or land with a slushy mix of water and ice crystals on the sea surface, called frazil ice. It used to be ice-free until about 34 million years ago, when it became covered with ice. Walruses forage on the seafloor, diving to depths up to 180 meters (590 feet) for clams, cockles, and mussels. Atmospheric carbon dioxide has been rising for more than a century, with large contributions from the fossil fuels used to power our homes, businesses, and cars. From giant glaciers to thin pack ice, each has distinctive characteristics, and those who have spent time in the Poles, from native people to sailors, have hundreds of names for the different kinds of ice. Then they dig out their prey using the tough edges of their noses, similar to how pigs root around in dirt and grass. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Northern Canada (Canada), … The Antarctic is characterized by the blowing of strong winds. From Shishmaref to Sachs Harbour, Canada, Arctic communities are on the frontlines of climate change. On the adjacent land, communities of native peoples have thrived for thousands of years by adapting to life along the edge of the ice. Flora. In the Southern Ocean, Antarctic krill swim in dense schools of 20,000 animals per cubic yard (540,000 cubic feet). In the northern polar region, the water and ice of the Arctic Ocean are surrounded by land. Makes you feel tired just thinking about it. When uneaten organisms die, they sink to the seafloor, feeding fish, seastars, soft corals, and other organisms in deeper water. This current pulls up cold, nutrient-rich waters from the deep sea to the surface, a process known as upwelling. The amount of multi-year ice that remains from year to year has been declining since the 1980s due to warming temperatures, leaving mostly newer, thinner ice on the surface. While the Arctic region has … • Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the globe while Antarctic at the bottom most corner. That is Arctic is at the North pole and Antarctic at the South pole. Russia has already staked a claim, using submarines to plant a flag on the Arctic Ocean floor. Seen here is a Dorset point made of Ramah Chert that was recovered at Hare Harbor. Antarctica and Greenland lose around 350 billion tons of ice each year from such melting. Nowadays, scientists have impermanent camps in Antarctic. Antarctica is the earth’s southernmost and fifth-largest continent, dividing the southern waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. But, masses of algae can be found in the Antarctic region. Three distinct types of killer whale can be found in the Antarctic, each with a different habitat and diet preference. Both male and female walruses have strong long tusks that they use to help pull themselves out of the water. Yet the two regions are also fundamentally different from one another. Polar bears have two layers of fur, plus a layer of blubber to keep them warm in the coldest weather, and black skin to absorb the heat. In keeping with this mandate, the Arctic Studies Center specifically studies northern peoples, exploring history, archaeology, social change and human lifestyles across the circumpolar world. All rights reserved. (NMNH Anthropology Collections/Smithsonian Institution), (Screenshot from Smithsonian Alaska Native Collections), poles are actually more different than you might expect, communities of native peoples have thrived, scientists and technicians at isolated research stations, mostly scientists and technicians engaged in research, hundreds of names for the different kinds of ice, BBC crew filmed a never-before-seen phenomenon, found that the ice crystals don’t go away, different species among the pods in Antarctica, or at least subspecies, warming at twice the rate of the rest of the planet, sea ice cover declined by about 20 percent, discovered that the ratio of thick to thin sea ice is changing, Northwest Passage connecting Europe to Asia, the Antarctic, which is governed in part by a multinational treaty, already losing their shells in the Antarctic, Arctic region is home to more than 4 million people, residents of Shishmaref are working with the U.S. Government to relocate, world's finest anthropological collections from arctic and sub-arctic regions, ice-scratcher used by hunters to lure seals. Imagine it being 40 degrees below zero (Fahrenheit and Celsius are equal at this temperature!) Ironically, the ships that bring nature-loving tourists may also unwittingly be bringing invasive species, such as plant spores and rodents that could damage the fragile Antarctic ecosystem. Secondly, Antarctica is the highest of all the continents at an average height of 2,300m (7,546 feet or 1.4 miles) more than twice the average height of Asia, the next in line and 3-6 times as high as the other continents. Large animals, like penguins, whales, and seals all feast on the krill. Polar bears are seen in plenty in the arctic region. Another study published in the same year found that the rate of Antarctic ice melt has tripled in the last five years. Simply tell us if you think the answer is the Arctic, Antarctica, or perhaps even both… Before Antarctica officially acquired its name, the phrase was used to describe places that contrasted the north. The primary difference between the Arctic and the Antarctic is a geological one. Polar Bears are dying off. The Arctic Ocean is characterized by a layer of cold, fresh water at its surface, a product of the floating ice. Explorers. The famous tusk is actually a specialized tooth that protrudes out of the left lip, and in rare cases, a narwhal can have two. Both the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean are defined by ice and dramatic shifts between endless day and endless night. For instance, in the 16th century, the colony that was built … Depending on the season, much or all of the Arctic Ocean is covered by a layer of sea ice, ranging in thickness from a few inches to over six feet, which is always shifting as it … They are some of the deepest diving whales with a record dive around 5,900 feet (1,800 meters)—over a mile deep! Since 1955, scientists have been coming to McMurdo primarily in the southern 'summer' months of October to February. Next: More arctic and more Antarctica, including Science and survival on Continent 7 and Drifting With the Ice: Life on an Arctic Expedition. An ice-free Arctic also opens up possibilities for drilling for oil and gas. Among the hardiest of the polar creatures, the male emperor penguin is the only animal that remains throughout the winter on the Antarctic continent. Warmer temperatures also cause sea level to rise and melt the permafrost, or frozen soil. McMurdo Station is the hub of the U.S. Antarctic Program. But, the Antarctic region is qualified by the presence of marine mammals such as penguins, whales and seals. Recent studies in the Ross Sea suggest the loud vocalizations may be used to stun prey. International Scientific Conference "COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH OF THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICA", March 2 @media (max-width: 1171px) { .sidead300 { margin-left: -20px; } } It has the longest migration of all birds, flying from breeding grounds near the North Pole to wintering grounds off Antarctica. Since 1983, Beijing has been a signatory to the Antarctic Treaty which prohibits new territorial claims, other than the seven original ones. They have hollow guard hairs that keep fur from matting when it gets wet. In both regions freezing temperatures, ice, snow and the darkness of the long polar nights make it difficult for plants, animals and humans to survive. More than 11,000 kilometers (6835 miles) separate the Arctic from the Southern Ocean. They take turns moving into the center of the crowd to warm up and then trading places with a penguin on the cold perimeter. The Arctic region is also characterized by the presence of trees such as Tundra and flowering plants. Also, while the Antarctic region is covered with snow all thorough the year, the Arctic lands generally have a summer, free from ice and snow. A stormy sea lashes the village of Shismaref, Alaska, where the coastline has eroded 30–90 m (100–300 ft) in the past 30 years. The sun-fed plankton are also important for the indigenous peoples of the Arctic who get food and clothing both from the sea (walrus, narwhals, beluga, other whales, polar bear, and fish) and the land (caribou, reindeer and musk-ox). Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. The dark sea floor of the Antarctic, beneath sea ice, is covered with life. Unlike the Antarctic, which is governed in part by a multinational treaty, there is no treaty currently for the Arctic polar region. A large portion of narwhals lives in Baffin Bay, which is the body of water between the northeastern coast of Canada and Greenland. • Antarctica is a continent surrounded by the world’s stormiest seas. Thus, Antarctica means opposite of Arctic land, “Anti-” plus the Arctic which forms a compound word. Polar bears, who rely on sea ice to reach seals for their winter meals, will have less time to reach their food source as the ice declines and breaks up earlier in the season. For thousands of years, the people in the Arctic have adapted to living in an ice-bound environment. The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are the only ice sheets currently on Earth, and they contain 75 percent of the freshwater in the world. A view of McMurdo Station with a frozen Ross Sea in the background. In other words, Arctic and Antarctic can be defined as regions related to North and South poles. • The Arctic has indigenous people such as Inuits, Indians and Siberians, but Antarctic remains unpopulated. 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