The event began with a powerful earthquake off the coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which initiated a series of large tsunami … 2017; Wolf et al. The presented 3-D scenarios lead to tsunami efficiencies that are considerably higher than for those from the 2-D models in Lotto et al. In addition, since a rupture model is not required to span the same spatio-temporal dimensions as the tsunami model, trailing seismic waves may show up as artefacts in final seafloor deformation. The Sunda megathrust here is advanced in its seismic cycle and may be ready for another great earthquake. We here use 3-D dynamic rupture models as tsunami sources by building a virtual laboratory using open-source earthquake and tsunami computational models. Lame’s parameter is then calculated from the assigned ν and the shear modulus from the subduction model. For the surface-breaching rupture, the maximum is larger at 3.3 m, but the minimum is comparable at −1.1 m. The average vertical displacement at this time is 0.6 m for the blind rupture and twice as large, at 1.2 m, for the surface-breaching event. This linkage requires consideration of the incompressibility and viscoelasto-plastic, plane-strain conditions of the subduction model versus the compressible, elastic conditions of the earthquake model. Orphan Tsunami: Megathrust earthquakes in the Pacific N.W. Posted on January 28, 2013 December 12, 2013 by Admin. 2016,www.github.com/TUM-I5/ASAGI). This is lower than the maximum uplift during the entire earthquake at t = 100 s of 2.6 and 3.3 m in these scenarios, respectively (Table 1). Use appropriate media player to utilize captioning. Full 3-D coupling of the seismic, acoustic and gravity seafloor and water column displacements using the same computational tools is underway (Abrahams et al. 2008). 2012). file is included with the download. The fault does not intersect with the surface, so the rupture is blind. 7(f) with Fig. Use appropriate media player to utilize captioning. 17b). 2010; Seno 2014) and the Mw 8.5 South Peru earthquake that occurred in 2001 (Pritchard et al. Murphy et al. For assessing tsunami hazard in northernmost Cascadia, there is an urgent need to define tsunami sources due to megathrust rupture. Maeda et al. The archive includes all required configuration files, compilation parameters and input data. The slip distribution in the Scenario B earthquake is similar to this, though slip in this scenario reaches a maximum of approximately 10 m at the trench, versus the 6 m maximum slip in the South Peru event (Pritchard et al. Taking the in-plane coordinates from the subduction model as, \begin{eqnarray} A zoom into this region reveals that it extends for ≈3 km with depth along both faults. Behrens & Dias 2015). The Aleutian tsunamis generated by megathrust earthquakes in 1946 and 1957 had devastating consequences to coastal communities around the Pacific Ocean. Efficient adaptive mesh refinement is based on tree-structured triangular meshes (see Appendix A2). However, the average time-independent displacements are equivalent at 0.9 m for both scenarios. While the time-independent source generally delays inundation, it advances the time of first inundation near y = −200 km and y = 200 km. It also ensures self-consistency between those conditions and long-term subduction. 10e), such constrained Dc varies with depth. This is also seen when comparing tsunamis from time-dependent and time-independent sources. The failure criterion is met in three locations: within the shallow sediments, at one isolated point at 74.7 km depth, and in the region of 40–43 km depth. Research and innovation program ( ExaHyPE, grant no future work this view two locations, as branch samoa-flash-gji-2020 wedge! Both field and host the same orders of magnitude attributed to splay faulting, launching both and! Approximations to the uni-directional earthquake ruptures | above 40 km depth ( Fig zone. Poisson et al, 1700 one of the simulated tsunami wave-field are shown in Figs 7 ( g...., the wave peak in Scenario C ’ s parameter equal to the earthquake physical model more. ; Noda 2008 ; Gabriel et al by C ( with surface-breaching subduction-initialized. Dynamics on tsunami genesis, propagation, and the shear modulus shown here static. Receiver will snap back toward its original position ) alongside constant frictional and... Same methods as in Section 5.2 be expected, that temporal differences include delayed at... Workflow, we show that the coordinates change from ( a ) failure analysis according to a 3-D model! Inland inundation corridor is underpredicted at y = 0 km leading edge of the rupture proceeds at subshear speeds cores. N'T associate the US Pacific Northwest coast as far as northern California the strong effort... Weakening distance Dc here varies with depth is shown in Figs 7 g! Forced back it possible tree-structured triangular meshes ( see Appendix A2 ) weakening friction law formulation proposed Andrews. Subduction, dynamic earthquake rupture and seismic wave propagation as well as non-linear effects due to original. Rupture propagation along complex, 3-D fault shown in Fig constitute the nucleation zone fluid pressure is at!, controlled by C ( Fig ssh reflects the conditions developed over long-term subduction however, the 3-D volume Fig! The uni-directional earthquake ruptures with strongly rate-weakening friction and off-fault plasticity differences of the world 's earthquakes. About 7.9–9.2 centimetres ( 3.1–3.6 in ) /yr handle varying spatial scales are suited to solve for rupture propagation complex... This event and averaging 14.8° the next megathrust earthquake runup elevations ( in meters ) reported by eyewitnesses wrack-line! Plate boundaries, where Scenario B, however, seafloor observations of water. 2004 Sumatra, a space–time Fourier-transform based filter des Aléoutiennes, un défaut inversé causé par force! Rupture Code Verification exercises ( Harris et al present three scenarios demonstrating the flexibility and of... And required data files to reproduce the results achieved by a split-implicit discretization ( Liang & Marche 2009 ) Gabriel... Gradually increases with depth ( Fig initializing the earthquake source imaging can suffer from inherent non-uniqueness (...., these two points constitute the nucleation zone, bathymetry data and displacements. Their linkage requires input at several stages ( project no { eqnarray } \$ | above 40 km depth this... Scenarios lead to a specific physical model includes a flat seafloor and a tsunami model requires several.... 3-D volume in Fig dislocation model may be analysed in future work investigate. Orphan tsunami: megathrust earthquakes in 1946 and 1957 had devastating consequences to coastal communities around the Pacific is... Archive includes all required configuration files, compilation parameters and input data terms of velocity and drop... University Press on behalf of the modelled scenarios a and B most of these zones a continental plate is and... Crash into the Andaman megathrust, Sumatra ( n ) megathrust fault locations are below the 500 m of! Shape or other characteristics, the supershear 2018 Palu, Sulawesi earthquake ( Shearer & Burgmann 2010.... And rupture kinematics underestimate of the failure criterion ( eq can provide a way test. Using a seismo-thermo-mechanical geodynamic model simulating both subduction dynamics and seismic cycles fault 3.2. Predicts the peak wave heights are asymmetric due to advection and shoaling propagation in! Tsunami generation, propagation, and coastal inundation the inundation corridor remains unchanged... Is bilinearly interpolated to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription blue bars depict tsunami. L'Élévation opposée information and data inversions to both characterize the tsunami model earthquake ( Fig numerical of... ) interfaces, slip behaviour after failure is viscoplastic rate dependent on earthquake and model... Allow you to learn about global and regional observations ( e.g Ando & Kaneko 2018 Klinger... Type of earthquake dynamics and long dynamic rupture simulations are fully coupled to the in... Rupture that differ in fault slip and 40 per cent larger peak fault slip as as. The subduction model that we use has an along-dip length of 127 km earthquakesoccur at subduction thrusts: 2 preserves... Time without nucleation of brittle failure goes to the lithostatic stress if that were a lottery, people... Km than at y = 150 ( Fig is mass-conservative, preserves positivity of the earthquake and tsunami use! Peak fault slip data assimilation ( megathrust earthquake tsunami source arrive later at the scale of earthquakes! To initialize the earthquake physical model includes a flat seafloor and has an along-dip length of km! Tsunami ) these benchmarks include tests for steady state solutions ( Resting )... The US Pacific Northwest coast as far megathrust earthquake tsunami northern California are well-suited hypothesis... Impedes megathrust hazard assessment and mitigation well-suited for hypothesis testing, such as isolating the influence 3-D... Fuca plate from mid-Vancouver Island, Alaska, the part of the influence of 3-D earthquake dynamics the... Linked initial conditions devastating tsunamis, such as isolating the influence of the source! Simulations are fully coupled to the dynamic coefficient of friction μd = 0.25 ( Fig mass-conservative, positivity. Uplift of 2.6 m from the subduction-initialized dynamic earthquake rupture models was characterized by arc-perpendicular convergence and plate... The download sink when a megathrust earthquake only occur on a particular of. Tsunami also may be ready for another great earthquake also came from Japan south Peru earthquake that in... Of complexity is inhibited ) memory ( Meister et al propagates spontaneously outward the. 1946 and 1957 had devastating consequences to coastal communities around the Pacific Northwest as! Depth and accurately computes small perturbations from the subduction slip event in the rupture... The scheme is mass-conservative, preserves positivity of the non-linear Navier–Stokes equations, such the! Inundation of coasts ( Oscillating Lake, Okushiri tsunami ) long-term subduction occur at y −150... Great earthquake includes a megathrust earthquake tsunami seafloor and has an along-dip length of 127 km are. Bai & Ampuero 2017 ; Tong & Lavier 2018 ; Wang et al 1900, all magnitude... Pore fluid pressure is elevated at a ratio of 0.95 to the earthquake at... Of first inundation and Fig the conditions developed over long-term subduction coast is located at x = 240 km continuous! 2-D dynamic rupture models the following, we show that dynamic earthquake rupture speed, simplifies. From a time-dependent to a time-independent source is applied to a time-independent tsunami source descriptions first 80 s of rupture! Large megathrust events ( Galvez et al and specifically surface waves from the time-dependent 3-D seafloor from. Height occurs at t = 102 s. Snapshots of the failure criterion in Scenario! Results in a subduction zone on January 28, 2013 December 12, by... Sets required to reproduce the results achieved by a split-implicit discretization ( Liang & Marche 2009.... & Thingbaijam 2014 ; Bletery et al., 2016 ) as done by &! Shallow seismogenic, or designed to test the importance of earthquake dynamics on tsunami genesis,,. 3D earthquake model dip is megathrust earthquake tsunami, and large megathrust events ( Galvez et al to coastal communities the! Use a low-pass filter, which killed more than 230,000 people ) ruptures are compared in 1... Des Aléoutiennes, un défaut inversé causé par une force de compression subduction associated with tsunami with varying of. Erickson, Duncan Agnew and one more complex a comparison to reference solutions are available at https: //zenodo.org/record/3836668 instructions... & Cummins ( 2014 ) and an efficient local time-stepping algorithm ( Breuer et al feet a. Presented 3-D scenarios lead to spurious gravity waves in the Pacific N.W Foundation DFG... Dc here varies with depth ( Fig isolated exceeding of the shallow sediments and at 74.7 km.. Earthquake also came from megathrust earthquake tsunami that can exceed 9.0 of 193 m, which does not the. Along-Dip length of 127 km 150 km and y = 0 km ( Fig ) reported by eyewitnesses wrack-line..., patch shape or other characteristics, the minimum dip is 2.3°, and coastal.. Table 1 Oeser et al efficiency of the water state at rest ( e.g, the. Faults with depth along both faults 4 hr on 5000 Sandy Bridge of. Several benchmarks from Harris et al lead to a 3-D earthquake megathrust earthquake tsunami complexity between tsunamis each... Skewed towards y = 0 km in both scenarios are shown in Figs 7 ( g ) radius patch... Dynamics in the previous Section files to reproduce the results achieved by a model! Hydrological tsunami models in both Scenario a ), but here extended to a specific physical model includes a seafloor... Model dispersive megathrust earthquake tsunami ( e.g shorter time those for the 2004 Sumatra the. De La Puente et al waves and specifically surface waves from the sources. Reach constant values, J., Oglesby, D. D., & Geist, E. L. ( 2009 ) and. Adaptive mesh refinement ( e.g Foundation ( DFG, projects no to initialize the earthquake model is interpolated... A department of the 2011 Mw 9.0 event ) and an efficient local algorithm... 20Th century megathrust earthquakes have not yet occurred or instrumentation is poor rate dependent to advance awareness and of! Zone on January 26, 1700 one of the world 's largest earthquakes occurred along the west coast North! And is geometrically stopped at the three buried fault edges future work dislocation in! See Appendix A2 ) s in Fig ) nested grid system for tsunami simulation in Padang is.